One fateful day in 1684, of Sir Christopher Codrington arrived on Antigua. An enterprising man, Codrington had come to Antigua to find out if the island would support the sort of large-scale sugar cultivation that already flourished elsewhere in the Caribbean. His initial efforts proved to be quite successful, and over the next fifty years sugar cultivation on Antigua exploded. By the middle of the 18th century the island was dotted with more than 150 cane-processing windmills--each the focal point of a sizeable plantation. Today almost 100 of these picturesque stone towers remain, although they now serve as houses, bars, restaurants and shops. At Betty's Hope, Codrington's original sugar estate, visitors can see a fully-restored sugar mill.
Most Antiguans are of African lineage, descendants of slaves brought to the island centuries ago to labor in the sugarcane fields. However, Antigua's history of habitation extends as far back as two and a half millenia before Christ. The first settlements, dating from about 2400 B.C., were those of the Siboney (an Arawak word meaning "stone-people"), peripatetic Meso-Indians whose beautifully crafted shell and stone tools have been found at dozens of sites around the island. Long after the Siboney had moved on, Antigua was settled by the pastoral, agricultural Arawaks (35-1100 A.D.), who were then displaced by the Caribs--an aggressive people who ranged all over the Caribbean. The earliest European contact with the island was made by Christopher Columbus during his second Caribbean voyage (1493), who sighted the island in passing and named it after Santa Maria la Antigua, the miracle-working saint of Seville. European settlement, however, didn't occur for over a century, largely because of Antigua's dearth of fresh water and abundance of determined Carib resistance. Finally, in 1632, a group of Englishmen from St. Kitts established a successful settlement, and in 1684, with Codrington's arrival, the island entered the sugar era.
By the end of the eighteenth century Antigua had become an important strategic port as well as a valuable commercial colony. Known as the "gateway to the Caribbean," it was situated in a position that offered control over the major sailing routes to and from the region's rich island colonies. Most of the island's historical sites, from its many ruined fortifications to the impeccably-restored architecture of English Harbourtown, are reminders of colonial efforts to ensure its safety from invasion.
Horatio Nelson arrived in 1784 at the head of the Squadron of the Leeward Islands to develop the British naval facilities at English Harbour and to enforce stringent commercial shipping laws. The first of these two tasks resulted in construction of Nelson's Dockyard, one of Antigua's finest physical assets; the second resulted in a rather hostile attitude toward the young captain. Nelson spent almost all of his time in the cramped quarters of his ship, declaring the island to be a "vile place" and a "dreadful hole." Serving under Nelson at the time was the future King William IV, for whom the altogether more pleasant accommodation of Clarence House was built.
It was during William's reign, in 1834, that Britain abolished slavery in the empire. Alone among the British Caribbean colonies, Antigua instituted immediate full emancipation rather than a four-year 'apprenticeship,' or waiting period; today, Antigua's Carnival festivities commemorate the earliest abolition of slavery in the British Caribbean.
Emancipation actually improved the island's economy, but the sugar industry of the British islands was already beginning to wane. Until the development of tourism in the past few decades, Antiguans struggled for prosperity. The rise of a strong labor movement in the 1940s, under the leadership of V.C. Bird, provided the impetus for independence. In 1967, with Barbuda and the tiny island of Redonda as dependencies, Antigua became an associated state of the Commonwealth, and in 1981 it achieved full independent status. V.C. Bird is now deceased; his son, Lester B. Bird, was elected to succeed him as prime minister.
A day of cricket is a brilliant way to view Antigua culture first hand - the excitement and energy that surround the game is fantastic fun and the whole island is literally bouncing when cricket is in town.
Antiguans are more than a little devoted to cricket. The island has historically been a very strong contributor to West Indian and international cricket, and the Antigua Recreation Ground is one of the finest places in the Caribbean to take in a local, regional, or international match. Devotees of the game can visit the Antigua and Barbuda Museum for a look at the infamous cricket bat of Vivian Richards, native Antiguan, former captain of the West Indies Cricket Club, and one of the greatest batsmen of all time. Matches can be found almost anywhere on the island, at almost any time.
Getting to Barbuda and getting around. Our transportation tips will help make your trip smoother. More good sand advice.
Passport and return or ongoing ticket required for entry. Citizens of the U.S. and Canada may enter with a return ticket and one of the following: Passport or original Birth Certificate and a photo I.D. in the form of a valid driver's license.
Air Canada; Air Jamaica; American Airlines; British Air; BWIA; Caribbean Star; LIAT; US Air; Virgin Atlantic
V.C. Bird International Airport - less than 5 miles from St. John's. American will soon begin daily service from Miami. The new service complements existing flights to Antigua from San Juan offered by American and American Eagle.
Renting a car is an ideal way to discover more of Antigua while on your vacation. In addition to a valid driver's license from your country of residence, or an international driver's license, a permit to drive in Antigua is required. The rental agency can assist you in getting the temporary license.
Taxis are available throughout.
Vacationers don't just stay in Barbuda villas - they come to paradise to get married and celebrate their honeymoons! Complete an application at the Ministry of Legal Affairs in St. John's. Cost: US$40 registration fee, US$150 special marriage application fee, US$50 for a marriage officer. Documents Required: Passports. Divorce or death certificates, if applicable. Wait Time: No waiting period.
Before making their way to Barbuda villas, vacationers like to know a little bit of helpful information to make them feel more at home during their stay. Take a look at our travel tips to make your time in villas in Barbuda even more relaxing.
|Capital:||Saint John's (Antigua)|
|Size:||Barbuda 161 sq km|
|Time:||14:34 pm zone:-4 (GMT/UTC -4)|
|Official Language:||English (official), local dialects|
|Currency:||East Caribbean dollar (XCD). U.S. dollars widely accepted.|
|Topography:||mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands, with some higher volcanic areas|
|Telephone:||international: country code - 1-268|